Monday, November 27, 2017

All Things Considered—Prostate Cancer

Nearly 200,000 cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed each year, and nearly 28,000 men die.[19] In a prostate cancer patient's testimony, he describes the disease as:[20,32]
"This is serious, life-changing stuff: There’s blood in your urine, a catheter snaked up your penis, scars stitch your gut, and you might be impotent and incontinent for a few months, a couple of years, or the rest of your life."
Scary! Isn't it?

Prostate Problems


The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and base of the penis, just in front of the rectum. It surrounds the urethra, the outlet from the bladder, and secretes the fluid portion of semen. Just as glandular tissue in the breast can become cancerous, so can glandular tissue in the prostate.

If the cancer is caught while still localized with the prostate, the chances of it killing you within the next five years are practically nil. However, if the cancer spreads far enough, your chances of surviving five years may be as low as one in three.[18,29]

Prostate Cancer Screening


Prostate Cancer Screening measures the level of PSA in the blood.  As a rule, the higher the PSA level in the blood, the more likely a prostate problem is present. But many factors, such as age and race, can affect PSA levels.

Also, noted that PSA test could have two potential issues:
  1. Prostate cancers—detected or undetected—may never have led to harm[49]
    • Autopsy studies show that about half of men over the age of 80 have prostate cancer.[18]
    • Most men die with prostate cancer without ever knowing they had it.
  2. PSA screening can result in a high percentage of false positives
The latest recommendation says that overall, PSA-based screening for men aged 55 to 69 offers a small potential benefit of reducing the chance of dying of prostate cancer.  For men 70 and older, the advisory panel continues to recommend against PSA-based testing, arguing that for this age group, prostate cancer evolves slowly and the 10-year survival rate is relatively high.



Risk Factors of Prostate cancer


  • Environmental quality
    • The risk of prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women seemed most susceptible to bad environmental quality (i.e., rural vs urban living areas), the research team observed.[12]
  • Higher calcium and/or dairy intakes
    • There is some evidence to suggest that higher calcium (ranging from 600 mg to >2000 mg of calcium) and/or dairy intakes (>2.5 servings) may be associated with the development of prostate cancer.[43-46]
      • However, these studies are observational in nature rather than clinical trials and cannot establish a definite causal relationship between calcium and prostate cancer.
    • At the present time, it is recommended that men ages 19 and over consume a "modest" intake of calcium ranging from 1000-1200 mg per day and maintain an intake below the upper tolerable limit (2500 mg).[47]
  • Alcohol consumption
    • A large amount of alcohol makes the detrusor muscle contract less efficiently and may make any prostate problem worse
  • Milk consumption
    • Growth hormones used in livestock raising
      • A lifetime of human exposure to these growth factors in milk may help explain the connections found between dairy consumption and certain cancers.[24]
      • Experimental evidence suggests that dairy could also promote the conversion of precancerous lesions or mutated cells into invasive cancers.[25]
    • Naturally produced sex steroid hormones
      • Today's genetically "improved" dairy cows are milked throughout their pregnancies when their reproductive hormones are particularly high.[21]
      • Which may lead to hormone-related conditions, including acne, diminished male reproductive potential, and premature puberty.[21-24]
    • A combination of case-control studies and cohort studies concluded that cow's milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer.[26-27]
    • A 2015 meta-analysis found that high intakes of dairy products—milk, low-fat milk, and cheese, but not nondairy sources of calcium—appear to increase total prostate cancer risk.[28]
  • IGF-1
    • The more IGF-1 you have in your bloodstream, the higher your risk for developing cancers, such as prostate cancer[39]
    • The release of IGF-1 appears to be triggered by the consumption of animal protein.[40-41]

How Not to Die from Prostate Cancer[42]


  • Eat plant-based whole foods (especially cruciferous vegetables)[41]
    • The blood of people eating plant-based diets was shown to fight cancer about eight times better.[30]
    • Dr Ornish et al. were able to demonstrate that a full-time plant-based diet allowed for an apparent reversal in cancer growth.
    • Both the historic rarity of BPH and prostate cancer in Japan and China have been attributed to the countries' traditional plant-based diets.[36]
    • Eating garlic and onions has been associated with significantly lower risk of BPH.[37]
    • A UCLA research team compared three groups of men: a plant-based diet-and-exercise group, an exercise-only group, and a control group of sedentary people eating standard fare.[31]
      • The blood of control group killed off 1-2% of cancer cells
      • The blood of exercise-only group killed 2,000% more cancer cells than that of the control groups'
      • However, the winner is the blood from the plant-based diet-and-exercise group, which wiped out 4,000% more cancer cells than that of the control groups'
    • In general, cooked vegetables may work better than raw ones, and legumes—beans, chickpeas, split peas, and lentils—have also been associated with lower risk.[38]
  • Cranberry
    • Cranberry removes purines, uric acid, and toxins from the bladder, kidneys, testicles, and prostate—which means a healthier prostate and less risk of prostate cancer.
  • Watermelon
    • Watermelon contributes to a healthy prostate and its lycopene may reduce risks of prostate cancer.[1]
  • Green tea
    • Based on a meta-analysis, it suggests that regardless of tea type, tea consumption might be a potential protective factor for the prostate caner, especially in China and India.[50]
      • Tea consumption might play a protective role in low-grade prostate caner.
    • But, you might need to drink 6 cups a day to have an impact[52]
      • In Japan, the high tea-drinking group can be five or more cups a day, which appeared to cut the risk of aggressive prostate cancer about in half. 
  • Lignans (hint: flaxseeds)[10]
    • Higher levels of lignans tend to be found in the prostate fluids of populations of men with relatively low rates of prostate caner[33]
    • Lignans have been shown to slow the growth of prostate cancer cells in a petri dish.[34]
    • The evidence suggests that flaxseed is safe, low-cost source of nutrition and may reduce tumor-proliferation rates.[48]
      • Ground flaxseed seems to be quite helpful not just for preventing prostate cancer, but also for men who already have prostate cancer.
      • As well as the phytoestrogen effect, the lignans in flaxseed adhere to hormone receptors and promote the removal of testosterone.
      • In men having prostate cancer, a low fat diet supplemented with 30 grams of ground flaxseed reduces serum testosterone by 15 %, slows down the growth rate of cancer cells, and increases the death rate of cancer cells.
  • Drink almond milk instead of cow milk
    • In a petri dish environment, Japanese researchers have found that cow milk produced an average increase in cancer growth rate of more than 30%. In contrast, almond milk suppressed the growth of the cancer cells by more than 30%.[25]
  • Avoid eggs (hint: choline)
    • Compared with men who rarely ate eggs, men who ate even less than a single egg a day appeared to have twice the risk of prostate cancer progression.[29]
  • Avoid poultry (hint: HCA)
    • Men with more aggressive cancer who regularly ate chicken and turkey had up to four times the risk of prostate cancer progression.[29]
  • Avoid commercially raised animals fed estrogenic hormones to make them gain weight faster and antibiotics to increase growth rate.
    • Residues of these drugs in meat can impact human health adversely.
    • The hormones may promote the development of prostate cancer in men.
    • Antibiotics in meat certainly contribute to the escalating problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which are becoming prevalent in the world.

References

  1. "Juiceman's Power of Juicing" by Jay Kordich
  2. Pancreatic Cancer Biomarkers Could Be Detected In Saliva, Mouse Study Shows
  3. New Test for Prostate Cancer (UCSF Medical Center)
  4. Prostate Cancer Symptoms
  5. Prostate Cancer: A Family Affair
  6. Tough Medicine A disturbing report from the front lines of the war on cancer
  7. The Most Common Prostate Cancer Screening Method Is Obsolete
  8. Prevention Tips for Common Cancers (The Asian Fund for Cancer Research, Ltd.)
    • Don’t overeat. Drink green tea
    • Know your family history of cancer
    • Quit smoking
    • Eat more fruits, vegetables, and lean protein
    • Meet with your doctor to develop a plan for physical activity
    • Limit alcohol intake: 2 drinks/day
  9. US panel issues new guidance on prostate cancer screening
  10. Pilot study to explore effects of low-fat, flaxseed-supplemented diet on proliferation of benign prostatic epithelium and prostate-specific antigen.
  11. Bone health and bone-targeted therapies for prostate cancer
  12. Cancer Risk: Rural areas a bit safer than urban ones
  13. Manipulating Diet May Impact Prostate Cancer Risk, Progression
  14. Treating Advanced Prostate Cancer with Diethttps://nutritionfacts.org/video/treating-advanced-prostate-cancer-with-diet-part-1/
  15. Jackson MD, Walker SP, Simpson-Smith CM, Lindsay CM, Smith G, McFarlane-Anderson N, Bennett FI, Coard KC, Aiken WD, Tulloch T, Paul TJ, Wan RL. Associations of whole-blood fatty acids and dietary intakes with prostate cancer in Jamaica. Cancer Causes Control. 2012 Jan;23(1):23-33.
    • To our knowledge, our study is the first to report an association between avocado consumption and prostate cancer.
    • Whole-blood and dietary MUFA reduced the risk of prostate cancer. The association may be related to avocado intakes. High blood linolenic acid was directly related to prostate cancer.
  16. Prostatic Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA) Is Positively Associated with Aggressive Prostate Cancer: A Relationship Which May Depend on Genetic Variation in ALA Metabolism
    • We found that while flaxseed supplementation resulted in significantly higher levels of ALA in the diet, this consumption did not translate into higher prostatic levels of ALA. This was an important finding because in additional analyses, prostatic ALA was associated with significantly higher PSA and tumor proliferation rates.
  17. Prostate Cancer Related Videos on NutriionFacts.org
  18. Jahn JL, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ. The high prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer at autopsy: implications for epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer in the Prostate-specific Antigen-era. Int J Cancer. 2014; Dec 29.
  19. Cancer for Disease Control and Prevention. Prostate Cancer Statistics.
  20. Person, Patient, Statistic
  21. Maruyama K, Oshima t, Ohyama K. Exposure to exogenous estrogen through intake of commercial milk produced from pregnant cows. Pediatr Int. 2010; 52(1): 33-8.
  22. Danby FW. Acne and milk, the diet myth, and beyond. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005; 52(2):360-2.
  23. Afeiche M, Williams PL, Mendiola J, et al Dairy food intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels among physically active young men. Hum Reprod. 2013; 28(8):2265-75.
  24. Ludwig DS, Willett WC. Three daily servings of reduced fat milk: an evidence-based recommendation? JAMA Pediatr. 2013; 167(9):788-9.
  25. Tate PL, Bibb R, Larcom LL. Milk stimulates growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(8): 1361-6.
  26. Qin LQ, Xu JY, Wang PY, Kaneko T, Hoshi K, Sato A. Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer: meta-analysis of case-control studies. Nutr Cancer. 2004;48(1):22-7.
  27. Qin LQ, Xu JY, Wang PY, Tong J, Hoshi K. Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: evidence from cohort studies. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(3):467-76.
  28. Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, et al. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(1):87-117.
  29. Richman EL, Stampfer MJ, Paciorek A, Broering JM, Carroll PR, Chan JM. Intakes of meat, fish, poultry, and eggs and risk of prostate cancer progression. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(3):712-21.
    • Our results suggest that the postdiagnostic consumption of processed or unprocessed red meat, fish, or skinless poultry is not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression, whereas consumption of eggs and poultry with skin may increase the risk.
  30. Ornish D, Weidner G, Fair WR, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostate cancer. J Urol. 2005;174(3):1065-9.
  31. Barnard RJ, Ngo TH, Leung PS, Aronson WJ, Golding LA. A low-fat diet and/or strenuous exercise alters the IGF axis in vivo and reduces prostate tumor cell growth in vitro. Prostate. 2003;56(3):201-6.
  32. Frey AU, Sonksen J, Fode M. Neglected side effects after radical prostatectomy a systematic review. J Sex Med. 2014;11(2):374-85.
  33. Morton MS, Chan PS, Cheng C, et al. Lignans and isoflavonoids in plasma and prostatic fluid in men: samples from Portugal, Hong Knong, and the United Kingdom. Prostate. 1997;32(2):122-8.
    • Isoflavanoids (from soy) and lignans have many interesting properties and may, in part, be responsible for lower incidences of prostate cancer in men from Asia and also some Mediterranean countries
  34. Lin X, Switzer BR, Denmark-Wahnefried W. Effect of mammalian lignans on the growth of prostate cancer cell lines. Anticancer Res. 2001;21(6A):3995-9.
  35. Leite KR, Camara-Lopes LH, Cury J, Dall'oglio MF, Sanudo A, Srougi M. Prostate cancer detection at rebiopsy after an intial benign diagnosis: results using sextant extended prostate biopsy. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63(3):339-42.
  36. Gu F. Epidemiological survey of benign prostatic byperplasia and prostatic cancer in China. Chin Med J. 2000;113(4):299-302.
  37. Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Talamini R, et al. Onion and garlic intake and the odds of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2007;70(4):672-6.
  38. Bravi F, Bosetti C, Dal Maso L, et al. Food groups and risk of benigh prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2006;67(1):73-9.
  39. Rowlands MA, Gunnell D, Harris R, Vatten LJ, Holly JM, Martin RM. Circulating insulin-like growth factor peptides and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2009;124(10):2416-29.
  40. Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ. The associations of diet with vegetarians, and vegans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(11):1441-8.
  41. Soliman S, Aronson WJ, Barnard RJ. Analyzing serum-stimulated prostate cancer cell lines after low-fat, high fiber diet and exercise intervention. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:529053.
  42. How Not to Die (Dr. Michael Greger)
  43. Janelle KC, Barr SI. Nutrient intakes and eating behavior scores of vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:180-6
    • Vegans' calcium and vitamin B-12 intakes may need attention
  44. American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc 2003;103:748-65
  45. Appleby P, Roddam A, Allen N, Key T. Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;61(12):1400-6.
  46. National Institutes of Health. Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. NIH Consensus Statement Online 2000:1-45
  47. Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2010.
  48. Flaxseed Supplementation (not Dietary Fat Restriction) Reduces Prostate Cancer Proliferation Rates in Men Presurgery
  49. Zlotta AR, Egawa S, Pushkar D, Govorov A, Kimura T, Kido M, Takahashi H, Kuk C, Kovylina M, Aldaoud N, Fleshner N, Finelli A, Klotz L, Sykes J, Lockwood G, van der Kwast TH. Prevalence of prostate cancer on autopsy: cross-sectional study on unscreened Caucasian and Asian men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Jul 17;105(14):1050-8.
  50. Fei X, Shen Y, Li X, Guo H. The association of tea consumption and the risk and progression of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014 Nov 15;7(11):3881-91.
  51. Hastak K, Gupta S, Ahmad N, Agarwal MK, Agarwal ML, Mukhtar H. Role of p53 and NF-kappaB in epigallocatechin-3-gallate-induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells. Oncogene. 2003 Jul 31;22(31):4851-9.
  52. Preventing Prostate Cancer with Green Tea (NutritionFacts.org)
  53. Breakthroughs in understanding the genetic basis of aggressive prostate cancer
  54. New Prostate Cancer Imaging Tracer Improves Detection
  55. Biomarkers Build Confidence in Choosing Active Surveillance Over Treatment
    • “Our study demonstrated that the genome is an independent indicator of more or less aggressive cancer,” explains Dr. Stephenson. “Although it’s not perfect, genomic biomarkers help us distinguish cancer behavior, which influences our decisions regarding surveillance and treatment.”

No comments:

Post a Comment