Saturday, June 24, 2017

Grand Challenges―Some of the Greatest Obstacles Facing Cancer Research Today (06/22/2017)

Cancer Research UK on 06/22/2017 has launched the second phase of its global Grand Challenge by announcing eight new questions – identified as some of the biggest barriers to making progress against cancer – and inviting the world’s top scientists to come together with new proposals to tackle them.

  1. Devise approaches to prevent or treat cancer based on mechanisms that determine tissue specificity of some cancer genes
  2. Create novel tumour vaccinology approaches that establish or enhance successful immune responses beyond what is revealed by current checkpoint therapy
  3. Define mechanistic rules for combinatorial treatments to overcome resistance and avoid toxicity
  4. Distinguish between lethal cancers which need treating, and non-lethal cancers that don’t
  5. Identify and target tumour cells that remain dormant for many years after seemingly effective treatment
  6. Detect cancer earlier by interrogating medical and non-medical data sets using machine and deep-learning
  7. Improve treatment responses by manipulating the composition and status of the microbiota
  8. Determine the mechanisms that cause cancer without known mutagenesis, such as obesity, in order to devise novel interventions

See Also:

  1. Understanding Cancer and Its Possible Treatments

Saturday, March 18, 2017

Hours of Sleep: How Long Is Too Little or Too Much?

On average, adults need 7-9 hours of sleep to stay healthy every night.

If Sleep Too Little

Adults who slept 5 hours or less a night had a 15% greater mortality risk compared with those sleeping 7 hours.  As we know, too little sleep may fuel insulin resistance
  • Sleep deficiency results in a higher than normal blood sugar level, which may increase your risk for diabetes[2]
  • After four nights of sleep deprivation (sleep time was only 4.5 hours per night), study participants' insulin sensitivity was 16 percent lower, while their fat cells' insulin sensitivity was 30 percent lower, and rivaled levels seen in those with diabetes or obesity[3]
  • Researchers at the University of Chicago found that losing just 3 to 4 hours of sleep over a period of several days is enough to trigger metabolic changes that are consistent with a prediabetic state.[4]

If Sleep Too Much

While not getting enough sleep is clearly associated with increased health risks, so is getting too much sleep. Those who slept 9 hours had a 42% increase in mortality risk.[5]

Every person is unique. Hours of sleep needed for each is different and varies with age. See above diagram for the recommended sleep hours per your age.

Besides hours of sleep, there are other factors to consider to get a good night sleep, read [1] for some recommendations. With a good night sleep, hopefully, you will wake up feeling energized and refreshed everyday. Stay healthy!


  1. Enjoy Good Night Sleep and Live Longer (Travel and Health)
  2. Diabetes and the Night Shift Factor
  3. Impaired Insulin Signaling in Human Adipocytes After Experimental Sleep Restriction: A Randomized, Crossover Study (Annals of Internal Medicine)
  4. Knutson, K.L. Impact of sleep and sleep loss on glucose homeostasis and appetite regulation. Sleep Medicine Clinics 2007;2(2):187-97
  5. Growing Number of People Get Too Much Sleep